Reference reading: Designing Interactive Pill Reminders for Older Adults: A Formative Study by Sepideh Ansari
Summary and note to myself:
This article discusses about the present technology used to increase adherence to medication among the older adults. It also proposed a a solution that dispenses medication in a way that is “secure, routine, and monitored by their physician or pharmacist”. It suggests 3 main stages in developing a pill reminder: 1. collect user requirements and design a high fidelity prototype 2. pilot testing the mid-fidelity prototype and analyze result 3. propose tasks to improve.
It is stated that non-adherence among patients has been identified as a major public health problem – imposing a considerable financial burden upon modern health care systems (10% hospital admissions, 23% admissions to nursing homes and ~$100 billion each year in the US. Information technology has been used both to measure and enhance adherence).
- interactive design (reminder + dispenser system)
- pocket size pill dispenser (portability)
- secured (authenticate)
- specific dose intake
- Primary user: older adult patients ( required to take a long list of medications for extended period of time)
Secondary user: doctors and pharmacists (to upload and maintain data)
- Stats, risks, and importance of medication adherence: – regardless of disease categories and age groups
In high income countries – 50% adherence rates to long term medicationIn low and middle income countries – lower adherence rates
Millions of people not taking their medication correctly. [ref]
Consequence of mistaking medication can be dangerous / deadly.
Many people forget to take their medications regularly – complicate medical problems.
- Non-adherence to medication – crucial health problem
- Effective pill reminder – can reduce aforementioned risks and problems and save billions of dollars for patients, insurance companies and the government.
- Definition of Adherence vs Compliance
- Barriers to Adherence – psychological problems, inadequate follow-up, side effects of medication, complexity, cost of medication, frequency of dose
- Sample IT Applications – home dosing routine, medication adherence aids (calendars, pillboxes, counters, pagers), medication reminder software, mobile phone – sms reminders [UbiMeds], Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS)
Primary usability [U] and experience [E] goals for users of the interactive pill reminder:
[U] Effective – help to load medications in exact amount at consistent times
[U] Efficient – simplified loading procedure
[U] Easy to learn – touch screen, large buttons, feedback
[U] Flexibility – customized to user’s preferences
[U] Safety – accessible only by the user, and medication kept in secure strilized compartment
[E] Enjoyability – user will be able to become more independent and greater quality of life
[E] Helpful – personal calendar – helps user take command of medications and personal life
[E] Motivating – inspire users to take medication correctly
[E] Inviting – aesthetically pleasing
User Requirement Analysis (may not be applicable to my project)
Loading medication – barcode scanner, collect information, compartment with LEDs
Taking medication – alarms go off, scan fingerprint, info displayed on screen, interactive, medication databse
Miscellaneous – personal calendar, alarm clock, small enough, rechargable
Finally, perform a user study – user interviews, focus group, questionnaire